Parachute are very effective when used to reduce landing speed of aircraft, to reduce the excessive use of mechanical brake and to avoid the over shooting of the runway in case of failure of brakes. These Parachute are known as Brake Parachute. These are also known as Drag chute or Tail Parachute.
The first known test using a Parachute as a landing brake was conducted in 1923 at Mc Cook field in Ohio. A conventional man – carrying Parachute was used to reduce the landing run of a dehavil and bi-Plane. In 1933, the Germens investigate feasibility developing Parachute suitable for the in flight and landing deceleration of aircraft. As a result of these investigation, the ribbon parachute was developed and successfully tested in 1937 as landing brake for a Junker W-34 aircraft. The ribbon Parachute provoked to be adequately stable. Opened reliability, had allow opining shock and did not interfere witn the controllability of the aircraft. Ribbon Parachute were used World War II (1939), by the Germans as brake parachute.
The Ring Slot parachute was developed in 1951 as Wright Field a low cost replacement of ribbon parachute and is used in many aircrafts.
The development of jet aircraft resulted in high landing speeds and associated long landing run. The B-47 bomber was the first,
U.S. aircraft to be equipped with a brake parachute and soon was followed by the F-94 fighter and B-52 bomber. Brake Parachute decrease the landing run by 25 to 40% depending on touchdown speed and runway conditions. Brake Parachute are most effective on Wet or icy runway and for high speed emergency landings.
Brake Parachute originally intended as an emergency device soon proved to be effective for saving tyres and mechanical brakes. Regular use of brake parachute saves the life of ceramics discs, this resulted in General use of the Parachutes for all landing.